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涉及美国投资移民EB-5的商业知识 – 本票(1)

2012-11-30 19:46 |原作者: admin

Promissory Notes 本票

Whether you borrow money from a bank or someone you know, you should sign a promissory note -- a legally binding contract in which you promise to repay the money. Most promissory notes say, in effect, "I promise to pay you $_____, plus interest of ___%" and then describe how and when you're going to make payments.

不论你从银行还是什么人那里借钱,你要签署一份本票 – 一个具有法律效应的文件,你在文件里承诺还款。绝大多数本票说“我承诺还你 $??,???,加上利息?%”然后讲什么时候,如何付款。

Taking the time to draft a well-thought-out promissory note can help preserve friendships and family harmony. It's smart to sign a promissory note even if the friend or relative from whom you're borrowing assures you that such formality isn't necessary. Think of it this way: documenting the loan can do no harm -- and it can head off misunderstandings about whether the money is a loan or gift, when it is to be repaid, and how much interest is owed.

花时间写一个考虑周全的本票可以帮助你保持朋友关系和家庭和睦。即使朋友或者亲戚确信说这样的正式是没有必要的,签署一个本票还是聪明的。这么想想:记录贷款是无害的 – 可以帮助消除这笔钱是贷款还是赠予,什么时候还款,欠多少利息等上发生的误解。

Banks provide their own promissory note forms, but if you borrow from a friend or relative, you'll need to come up with one on your own. Their legal and practical terms can vary considerably. How do you pick the form that's right for you and that won't cause your business unexpected trouble down the road? Here are four different approaches.

银行提供他们自己的本票格式,但是如果你从一个朋友或亲戚那里借款,你要自己写一份本票。法律和实际条款可能因此千差万别。如果挑选一个合适的格式以避免今后的麻烦呢?有下面的解决办法。
Key Issues when You Borrow 当你借款时关键考虑因素
• The rate of interest you'll pay. 你要付的利息。
• If your business is a corporation or limited liability company (LLC), will the owners (corporate shareholders or LLC members) personally guarantee the loan? If they don't, they have no personal legal obligation to repay if the business collapses. Partners and sole proprietors are always individually liable to repay money they borrow.
如果你的公司是“股份公司”或者是“有限责任公司”,那么公司拥有人(股份公司的情况下是公司股东,或者在有限责任公司的情况下是公司的合伙人)是否对贷款作出个人担保?如何没有,那么在生意垮掉后他们没有个人法律责任来偿还债务。“合伙公司”和“独立业主”总是对偿付借款具有个人责任。
• Will you put up your house or other property as security for the loan? Commercial lenders are far more likely to require this than are family members and other personal lenders. 你是否会把你的房产和其他财产作为贷款的抵押?商业放贷者必你的家庭成员和其他个人放贷者更容易要求个人房产和财产抵押。

Promissory Note -- Interest-Only Payments and a Final Balloon Payment
本票 – 仅负利息和最终一次还款

With this type of note, you repay the lender by making regular payments of interest. The principal stays the same. At the end of the loan term, you must make a balloon payment to cover all the principal and any remaining interest.
这种类型本票,你固定的给放款人付利息。本金保持不变。在贷款期结束时,你必须把所有的本金和未付利息一次性付给放款人。

The obvious advantages of this arrangement are the low initial payments. If you find yourself in the happy situation of having extra cash, you can prepay principal. But over the long term, you'll pay more interest because you're borrowing the principal for a longer time. On a $20,000 loan, paid back in four years, you would pay nearly $3,000 less by making equal amortized payments than if you made interest-only payments plus a final balloon payment.

这种方式显而易见的好处是最初付款金额很低。如果你发现你有很多额外的现金,你可以提前还本金。但是长期而言,因为你借本金的时间很长所以你付出了很多利息。一个20,000美元的贷款,4年内还清,一个分期偿还(amortized payments)的方式会比仅付利息最后一次性偿付本金和利息的方式少付3,000美元。

Promissory Note -- Single Payment of Principal and Interest
本票 – 单独的一次本金和利息还款

If your lender agrees, you can promise to pay off the loan all at once, at a specified date. This payment includes the entire principal amount and the accrued interest. Borrowing money on these terms is best for a short-term loan or if the lender isn't worried about on-time repayment.

如果你的放款人同意,你可以许诺在确定的时间,最终一次性偿付本金和利息。这个付款包括所有本金和累计利息(accrued interest)。这种方式适合短期贷款,或者放款人不担心你的一次性还款。

Example 例子
Renee borrows $15,000 from her former college roommate for her graphic design business. The loan is at 8% and is to be repaid in one payment in seven years. Unless Renee pays back the loan early, she will owe $19,638.48

瑞内从她以前大学室友那里借$15,000来做图像设计生意。该贷款年息8%,并且在7年内一次性偿付。除非瑞内提早偿付该借款,否则她将必须付$19,638.48美元。

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